INDUCTIVE, DEDUCTIVE AND COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING STRATEGIES IN ZAMBIAN LANGUAGES

COMPOSITION OF SHOT INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES BASED ON INDUCTIVE, DEDUCTIVE AND COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING STRATEGIES IN ZAMBIAN LANGUAGES
16.0 Introduction

Over a period of time, several factors had been at play which influenced scholars to start changing the methods of language teaching from one approach to another. Inductive, Deductive and communicative language teaching strategies are amongst the several methods used in the teaching of language. The discussion in this paper will involve these three methods with respect to the objectives followed. Firstly, the paper will discuss the methods in detail and the various terminologies used in the question. Secondly, the paper will compose shot introductory exercises with respect to the question in Tumbuka language with the glosses in English and finally, give the conclusion.

17.0 DEFINITION OF TERMINOLOGIES.
Many scholars in linguistics and other fields of study have attempted to define different language teaching methods and approaches in various and more similar ways. However, the meaning and focus of these different definitions on the methods are principally the same in terms of focus. Mackey (1965: 7) argued that
The only valid statements about the inductive language teaching approach
are those arrived at by observing linguistic facts, classifying them and making
generalisations about what is observed and classified. Contrary to inductive
approach, the deductive approach perceives a pattern, constructs a theoretical
model, and tests to see how much can be deduced from it.
Unlike the deductive approach which is teacher centred and usually starts from general rule explanation to specific, inductive language teaching is pupil centred. It starts from specific to general.

Littlewood (1981:1) defined the communicative language teaching approach as “that type of an approach which pays systematic attention to functional as well as structural aspects of language, combining these into a more fully communicative perspective”. In addition, Lungu (2006:9) also stressed the fact that this approach emphasize on the student’s communicative skill by designing teaching and learning materials that promotes communicative skills of the pupils in real life situations such as dramatisation, role-playing and simulation.

Extensions are kinds of verbal suffixes. Following M. Guthrie, these suffixes may be called extensions because they extend primitive radicals to produce derived radicals. They take many forms such as the passive as in Kukaka ‘to tie’ > Kukakika ‘to be arrested/tied’, reciprocal as in Kuwona ‘to see’ > kuwonana ‘to see each other’.

A tense is a very important feature of Bantu languages. In many of these languages, the past is divided between the past of today (Hodiernal past) and the past before today (prehodiernal past). The tense marker in Tumbuka language follows just after the subject marker as in angwiza ‘He/she came today’ compare to akiza ‘he/she came before today’. What is in bold shows the tense marker.

Nouns and adjectives are derived from verbs in most Bantu languages. E.g. Lemba (verb) ‘write’ > Kalemba ‘writer’ and Kula (verb) ‘grow’ > Chikulu (adjective) ‘something big’, respectively. However, it should be pointed out here that it is not easy to derive adjectives from verbs in some Bantu languages like Tumbuka.

3. O COMPOSITION OF SHOT INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES
3.1 Using Communicative language teaching approach to teach how to derive nouns and adjectives from verbs correctly in speaking and writing and writing.

Class: Grade Nine M.
Subject: Tumbuka Language.
Type of lesson: Structure.
Topic: How to derive Nouns and adjective from Verbs.
Objective: By the end of this lesson, PSBAT correctly derive Nouns and adjective from Verbs in speaking and writing.
TEACHER ACTIVITY PUPIPL ACTIVITY

3.2 Using Deductive Approach to teach Verbal Extensions
Class: Grade Nine M.
Subject: Tumbuka Language.
Type of lesson: Structure.
Topic: How to derive Nouns and adjective from Verbs.
Objective: By the end of this lesson, PSBAT correctly derive Nouns and adjective from Verbs in speaking and writing.
TEACHER ACTIVITY PUPIPL ACTIVITY

3.3 Using Inductive Approach to teach Tense Maker of the immediate past tense
Class: Grade Nine M.
Subject: Tumbuka Language.
Type of lesson: Structure.
Topic: How to derive Nouns and adjective from Verbs.
Objective: By the end of this lesson, PSBAT correctly derive Nouns and adjective from Verbs in speaking and writing.
TEACHER ACTIVITY PUPIPL ACTIVITY

REFERENCES
Jack C. R &Theodore S. R .1986. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching; a description and Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lungu E. C. 2006. The Effectiveness of Communicative Approaches and Traditional
Methods on Reading and writing Achievement in English in Grade
Eight in Selected Zambian Basic schools. Thesis. Lusaka: University
of Zambia.

Mackey. W. F. 1965. Language Teaching Analysis. London and Harlow: Longmans,
Green & Co LTD.
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About Sitwe

Sitwe Benson is a citizen of the world based in Zambia. He is never alone.
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