State and critically evaluate factor affecting the provision of basic Education in both rural and urban Zambia. Account for education Equality disparities existing between rural and urban area.
There are a number of factors affecting the provision of education system in both rural and urban areas of Zambia . These factors also affect the equality disparities of the education system between rural and urban areas. This paper aim at stating the factors that affect the provision of basic education at both rural and urban areas of Zambia . The paper will also account for the educational equality disparities which exist between the rural and urban areas of Zambia . This essay will start by defining some key words with respect to the question, and then it will account the main factor and other concerns of the question and finally give a conclusion.
There are a number of factors which affect the provision of basic education in Zambia at both rural and urban areas. Some of these are highlighted and critically evaluated below.
Firstly, there is human resource as a factor. The provision of basic education is largely affected by the human resource factor because there are very limited teachers at both rural and urban areas of Zambia . The teacher pupil ratio at is too high especially in rural areas. Kelly(1999) allege that if the teacher pupil ratio at any level of the education system is too high especially at basic level, the quality of education is heavily affected. This is because pupils really need attention in a number of fields in term of consultations and other academic works. It is impossible for a teacher to attend to each and every pupil especially if the margin is too big. Therefore, the human resource is one of the factors affecting the provision of education system in Zambia .
Impact on the environment is the second factor. A good provision of education must take into account the environment in which pupil learn. Both the teacher and the pupil must be free to do their work properly. Any growth at the cost of enviornment short-lives the victory of educationm system. If nothing in the school environment threatens or weakens the resource base or exacerbates the destructive impact of natural calamities and worsens the vulnerability of the teacher and pupils, the provision of the education system is automatically affected.
There is also a factor of qualified human resource. A lot of teachers at basic schools in Zambia at both rural and urban areas are not fully trained or qualified. This really affect the quality of the provision of the education system. The problem with this trend in this case is that teachers do not teach some topics which they do not fully understand. A case which Hoppock (1966) called academic poisoning where pupils are taught wrong skills and theories. In this regard , there is need for teachers to be trained and treat their respective job as professions and not anything else.
The third factor in this paper is based on the education materials. Most basic school do not have enough educational materials like books, rulers, maps, charts and many other resources needed for the provision of education to young tars. Carmody (2004) states that education without resources is like education without a future. In this case, Carmody is alleging that quality and sustainable education cannot continue or be given without any formal documentation or resources to back it up. There is need for educational materials at basic level in Zambia . The government and other individual sector need to improve in the procurement of book and other educational materials in order to improve the standard of the educational system. Therefore, there is need for teaching resources at basic level in both rural and urban areas in order to facilitate the teaching and learning processes for both the teacher and the pupil respectively.
Fourthly, there is financial factor. This factor can be rated at the national level. It is impossible to run a formal institution without some form of money especially in a modern world. Money is the limiting factor for most of the activities in which we are basically found. Teacher need to be paid. Previously, there ha been a number of strikes made by teachers in the teaching profession in trying to request for money. This strike directly affects the provision of the education system in a country like Zambia . Nevertheless, Financial I one of the biggest factors to be paid attention to.
Another factor in Zambian basic schools has to do with destination. A lot of pupils in most Zambian school are not able to go to school because they are discouraged by the distance covered in the to an from. Therefore, there is need for to consider destination for the to and from school.
Anther problem which should be considered as the factor is the curriculum and the educational policy itself. The curriculum for the basic education in Zambia doe not fully much with the things which pupils are expected to learn. What they learn and what they do in the society is completely different. However, the policy and restrictions given to teachers also have an implication to the provision of the educational system. Most teacher would like to take some personal business alongside with the teaching professions like doctors and other professions but the policy doe not empower teachers to do so. This factor naturally affects the provision of education system at basic school in both rural and urban areas.
Poverty is another factor which affects the provision of education system in most basic schools in Zambia . A lot of basic needs are not met by both teachers and pupils at both rural and urban areas and this directly affect the provision of basic education in Zambian schools. Kelly (1992) says, “poverty has stricken education the education system in mot African countries a most pupils and teachers cannot find the basic need they deserve”.
“National educational policies which affects boy and girls differently is called disparity” (Educating our future document, 1966). There are a number of education equality disparities existing between rural and urban areas. In most cases, the urban pupils are mostly favored than pupils in the rural areas of Zambia in a number of ways. Firstly, most qualified teachers are found in urban schools. This is because there are a number of opportunities available in urban areas than in the rural areas of Zambia . This a disparity on its own in terms of equality in the provision of education system in Zambian basic schools.
Secondly, Schools in urban areas usually receive the information from the ministry of education quickly and faster than schools in the rural areas of the country. This is because ministerial offices and other major educational office are based in urban areas of the country.
In Urban areas, there are a lot of schools approximately occupying between one hundred meters and five hundred meters away from each other. This kind of development automatically allows and empowers school going pupils or children to increase in number as compared to rural schools. Schools in rural areas very distantly located approximately between ten kilometers to twenty kilometers which automatically demotivates school going children to stay home.
Another disparity between rural and urban basic schools is that in the urban areas, there is better infrastructure and resources like desks and other educational materials are available than in rural areas. This disparity can also be attributed to the factor of geographical location and how it affect the provision of the education system
In conclusion, the paper has high lightened on a number of factors which affect the provision of basic education at both rural and urban areas. The essay has also reflected that urban schools are more advantaged than the rural schools in a number of ways. Access to critical services such as education, health care, and communication; strong communities; and a healthy natural environment to name a few have also been highlighted as part of the disparities between the rural and urban schools. while urban Zambian schools are advantaged upon these things, the challenges to well-being look very different in rural areas than in urban. In rural areas the provision of education make it seem more costly due to lack of resources and the teachers here find means and ways to make the learning and teaching easy for them.
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Mwanakatwe M.J. (1974). The growth of Education in Zambia Since Independence, Lusaka : Oxford UNZA Press.
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